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Часть 4.

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840

Алфавитный

указатель авторов

A

Abelson, 238; 239; 599; 773 Brown, 295; 322; 415

Ackley, 516 Brownston, 210; 215

Adam, 598 Buchanan, 45; 321; 341; 348; 406

Adler, 265 Bundy, 44; 104; 553; 559

Agre,49;221;226;804 Burks, 509; 5/6

Aho, 144; 189 Burmeister, 265

Aiello, 215 Burstall, 35

Allen, 54; 316; 566; 576; 585; 598 Burton, 322

Alty, 321 Busuoic, 265

Anderson, 54; 199; 230; 268; 467; 481; 524; 805; 807 Buttier, 30

Andews, 103

Appelt, 86 C

Arbib, 509

Ashly, 299 Cahill, 794

Auer 432 Carbonell, 303; 432

Austin, 39; 805 Cardie, 597

Carlson, 787 Ceccato, 230

B Chang, 103; 531; 539; 559

Baker, 45 Chapman, 49; 221; 226; 804

Ballard, 481; 807 Charniak, 146; 241; 341; 599

Balzer, 215 Chen, 265

Bareiss, 299 Chomsky, 574

B arker, 200 Chorafas, 321

Barkow, 790 Chung, 264

Ban, 54; 322 Church, 607; 803

B artlett, 237; 800 Clancy, 295

Barto, 427; 429; 431; 432 Clark, 220; 222; 268; 802; 808

Bateson, 54 Clocksin, 607; 610; 680

Bechtel, 808 Codd, 509

Benson, 316; 322; 511; 516; 802 Co'ty.54'233

Berger, 591 Cole, 599

Bernard, 296 Collins, 227; 268

Bertsekas, 432 Colmerauer, 606; 680

Birmingham, 264 Conway, 484; 505; 516

Bishop, 482 Coombs, 321

Bledsoe, 54; 528; 557; 558 Cooper, 555

Bobrow, 226; 268 Corera, 264

Bond, 266 Corkill, 275; 2/5

Boole, 33 Cormen, 145

Bower, 250; 26S Cosmides, 790

Boyer, 44; 54; 559 Cotton, 50; 476

Brachman, 104; 233; 268; 803 Criscuolo, 331; 366

Brooks, 49; 54; 220; 221; 226; 255; 256; 258; 268; 269; Crutchfield, 455; 511; 513

485; 510; 802; 804; 808 Cutosky, 264

D G

Dahl, 680 Gallier, 103

Darlington, 55 Ganzinger, 559

Dan-, 264 Garey, 150; 181

Davis, 50; 293; 322; 366; 415; 490 Gasser, 266

Dechter, 365 Gazdar, 599; 680

DeJong, 51; 407; 409 Gazzaniga, 787; 794

deKleer, 55; 269; 293; 319; 334; 335; 339; 366; 773 Genesereth, 104; 338; 366; 559

Dempster, 350 Gennari, 421

Dennett, 54; 222; 268; 516; 791; 804; 807 Gentner, 413

Devis, 269; 322 Giarratano, 321

Devore, 509 Gilbert, 794

Dietterich, 411; 432 Ginsburg, 366

Dologite, 321 Glasgow, 598

Domingue, 773 Glymour, 354

Doorenbos, 265 Goldberg, 494; 515

Doyle, 329; 332; 334; 366 Goodwin, 333

Dreyfus, 39; 804 Gould, 506; 516

Dnizdel, 364; 366 Graham, 265; 773

Duda, 45; 357 Grice, 39; 341; 505

Durfee, 263 Griffiths, 265

Durkin, 45; 54; 321 Grossberg, 459; 481

Grosz, 805

E

Eco, 805 H

Edelman, 790; 804 Hall, 412

Elman, 481,807 Hammond, 303

Engelmore, 215 Hamscher, 293; 322

Erman, 213; 215 Hanson, 513

Ernst, 522; 526; 784 Harbison-Briggs, 321

Euler, 32 Harmon, 54; 228; 321

Evans, 259 Harris, 599

Hasemer, 773

?T Haugeland, 54; 268; 807

Haussler, 405

Falkenhainer, 413 Hayes, 37; 54; 308; 366; 607

Fass, 599 Hayes-Roth, 54; 215; 265; 321; 516

Feigenbaum, 54; 322; 371; 432; 559; 793 Hebb, 437; 439; 462; 481

Feldman, 432; 559; 793 Hecht-Nielsen, 436; 456; 459; 477; 481

Fikes,J//;407;525 Heidegger, 39; 806

Fillmore,2JJ Heidorn, 576

Fischer, 265 Helman, 145

Fisher, 300; 420; 432 Hempel,S05

Flores, 39; 54; 58; 599; 804; 806; 807 Henrion, 365

Fodor, 759; 790 Hightower, 509; 516

Forbus, 55; 773 Hill 650

Ford, 37; 54; 55 Hillis, 52

Forgy,29;;307 Hinton,4S7

Forney, 557 Hobbs, 366

Forrest, 515 Hodges, 54

Franklin, 481; 807 Hoff,446

Freeman, 481; 796 Hofstadter, 259

Frege, 34 Holland, 259; 485; 492; 494; 497; 499; 515; 789

Frey, 482 Holowczak, 595

Frieder, 793 Holyoak,4J2

842

Hopcroft, 574; 599

Hopfield, 437; 472; 481

Horowitz, 117; 145

Hume, 401

Husserl, 39; 806

Ignizio, 321

Ivry, 794

Jeannerod, 481; 807

Jennings, 221; 226; 262; 264; 266

Johnson, 39; 54; 150; 181; 226; 321; 785; 791; 802; 804;

808

Johnson-Laird, 804

Jordan, 482

Josephson, 366

Jurafsky, 47; 54; 585; 588; 592; 599

К

Karmiloff-Smith, 788; 791; 795

Kaufmarm, 559

Kautz, 265

Kedar-Cabelli, 412; 432; 668

Keravnou, 321

King, 54; 228; 680

Klahr, 199; 215; 321; 432

Klein, 49; 264; 318; 511; 802

Knight, 310

Kohonen, 436; 455; 457; 467; 481

Koller, 365

Kolmogorov, 799

Kolodner, 241; 301; 303; 321

Kondratoff, 55; 432

Korf, 131; 181

Kosko, 472; 481

Kosoresow, 365

Kosslyn, 787; 794

Koton, 299

Kowalski, 528; 547; 549; 606; 680

Koza, 485; 500; 501; 504; 515

Krulwich, 265

Kuhl, 794

Kuhn, 807; 808

Kulikowski, 432

Lakatos, 808

Lakoff, 59; 54; 226; 417; 457; 785; 791; 802; 808

Langeland-Knudsen, 321

Langley,416;432

Langton, 55; 485; 509; 516; 802

Алфавитный указатель авторовLarkin, 199

Laskey, 565

Lauritzen, 363

Lave, 805

Leake, 302; 321

Lee, 103; 531; 539; 559

Leibniz, 32

Leiserson, 145

henat,50;415;416

Lesser, 213; 215; 263

Levesque, 104; 268; 269; 339; 803

Lewis, 49; 54; 226; 261; 262; 510; 785; 802

Lieberman, 265

Lifschitz, 337; 338; 366

Lindsay, 45; 322

Ljunberg, 264

Lloyd, 55P; 607

Lovelace, 33

Loveland, 559

Lucas, 264; 680

Luck, 794

Luger, 25; 48; 49; 54; 198; 215; 226; 261; 262; 269; 296;

300; 302; 322; 432; 510; 524; 785; 789; 792; 802;

804; 807

M

Machtey, 58

Macready, 798

Maes, 265; 269; 516

Magerman, 591

Mahoney, 365

Maier, 680

Malpas, 640; 680

Manna, 79; 103; 319

Manning, 47; 591; 592; 599

Marcus, 47

Markov, 198

Marshall, 261

Martin, 47; 54; 405; 432; 585; 588; 592; 599

Martins, 333; 335; 366

Masterman, 230

McAllester, 333; 366; 559

McCarthy, 86; 308; 337; 366; 607; 647

McCarty, 668

McCord, 650

McCorduck, 371

McCulloch, 438; 481

McDermott, 61; 146; 200; 322; 329

McGaugh, 794

McGonigle, 802; 808

McGraw, 321

Mead, 481

Mellish, 599; 607; 610; 680

Merleau-Ponty, 39

Michalski, 55; 418; 432; 500

Michie, 432

843

Miller, 794

Minsky, 55; 242; 244; 440; 789; 790

Minton, 407

Mitchell, 51; 259; 268; 380; 381; 387; 406; 408; 411;

432; 485; 494; 504; 511; 513; 515; 669; 798

Mithen, 790; 791

Моск1еr,.321

Mooney, 51; 341; 407; 409; 598

Moore, 44; 54; 330; 366; 524; 559

Moret, 181

Morgan, 215

Morrison, 33

Mycroft, 640; 643; 680

N

Nadathur, 680

Nairn, 598

Nash-Webber, 233

Nayak, 296; 298; 318; 322

Necht-Nielsen, 796; 799

Negoita, 321

Neves, 640

Newell, 42; 43; 52; 54; 71; 77; 145; 175; 199; 212; 215;

515; 522; 524; 525; 526; 604; 778; 784; 793; 795;

807

Ng, 341

Nii, 215

Nilsson, 49; 54; 104; 136; 145; 174; 177; 181; 200; 310;

311; 316; 338; 366; 440; 510; 511; 528; 545; 553;

558; 559; 802

Nishibe, 265

Nordhausen, 417

Norman, 230; 233; 807

Norvig, 314; 322

Noyes, 773

О

O'Connor, 200

O'Keefe, 640; 643; 680

O'Leary, 795

Oliveira, 264

Oliver, 490

Perriolat, 264

Petta, 265

Pfeffer, 365

Piaget, 800

Pitts, 438; 481

Pless, 365

Polya, 149

Popper, 805; 808

Posner, 804; 807

Post, 198

Poundstone, 484; 507

Prerau, 321

Pylyshyn, 54; 804; 807

Quan, 264

Quillian, 227; 230; 268

Quine, 808

Quinlan, 50; 392; 398; 399; 432; 439

R

Raphael, 230

Reddy, 213; 215

Reggia,559

Reinfrank, 334; 366

Reiter, 329; 330; 366

Reitman, 230; 259

Rich, 310

Rieger, 234

Riesbeck, 241; 599

Riley, 321

Rissland, 299

Rivest, 145

Roberts, 230

Robinson, 528; 540; 606

Rochester, 439

Rosch, 420; 457

Rosenberg, 452

Rosenblatt, 439; 481

Rosenbloom, 515

Ross, 345; 349; 366; 680

Roussel, 606

Rumelhart, 233; 446; 481

Russell, 34; 65; 77; 220; 314; 322; 412; 522; 523

Papert, 278; 440

Parra, 794

Pearl, 54; 146; 174; 181; 355; 359; 364; 424

Pearlmutter, 794

Peirse, 805

Penrose, 782; 804

Penueli, 319

Pereira, 680

Perl, 361

Perlis, 338; 366

Sacerdotti, 322; 528

Sagi, 794

Sahni, 117; 145

Samuel, 300; 302

Scapura, 796

Schank, 54; 233; 238; 239; 241; 599

Schoonderwoerd, 265

Schrooten, 265

844 Алфавитный указатель авторов

Schutze, 47; 591; 592; 599

Schwuttke, 264

Searle, 39; 58; 599; 785; 804

Seboek, 805

Sedgewick, 145

Sejnowski, 452

Selfridge, 481

Setaian, 340

Selz, 230; 268

Shafer, 366

Shannon, 396; 481

Shapiro, 55; 181; 322; 333; 366; 504; 549; 560; 680

Shavlik, 432; 453

Shephard, 787; 794

Shimony, 341

Shortliffe, 45; 321; 341; 348

Shrager, 416; 432

Shrobe, 294

Sidner, 805

Siegelman, 799

Siekmann, 559

Simmons, 230; 233

Simon, 38; 42; 43; 52; 54; 71; 77; 145; 175; 198; 215;

219; 372; 522; 525; 778; 784; 793; 795; 807

Sims, 416

Skapura, 481

Skinner, 215; 300; 322

Smart, 321

Smith, 45; 221; 599; 807

Smoliar, 322

Soderland, 598

Soloway, 200

Somogyi, 680

Sontag, 799

Sowa, 230; 245; 254; 268; 576; 583; 594; 599; 680

Spiegelhalter, 363

Squire, 787; 794

Steele, 756; 761; 773

Stein, 258; 269

Stepp, 418

Staling, 680

Stern, 296; 300; 302

Stubblefield, 300; 302; 416; 432

Stytz, 793

Suchman, 801

Sussman, 51; 773

Sutton, 425; 427; 429; 431; 432

Sycara, 262; 264

Takahashi, 265

Tang, 794

Tanimoto, 773

Tame, 794

Tarski, 35

Tesauro, 429; 431

Thagard, 432

Tong, 680

Tooby, 790

Touretzky, 331; 366; 773

Trappl, 265

Triesman, 794

Tsitsiklis, 432

Turing, 36; 54; 803

Turner, 253; 366

и

Ullman, 144; 189; 574; 593; 594; 599

Urey, 504

Utgoff, 402

Valiant, 404

vandeVelde,265

van der Gaag, 366

van Emden, 547; 549

VanLe, 680

VanLehn, 322

Varela, 804

Veloco, 262; 265

Veroff, 44; 54; 104; 145; 559

Viterbi, 587

von Glasesfeld, 800

w

Waldinger, 79; 103

Walker, 680

Warren, 607; 680

Waterman, 45; 54; 215; 274; 321

Wavish, 265

Weiss, 432

Weizenbaum, 54; 804; 806

Weld, 269; 316

Weyhrauch, 366

Whitehead, 34; 65; 77; 220; 522; 523

Widrow,446

Wilks, 54; 230; 599

Williams, 296; 298; 318; 322

Winograd, 39; 47; 54; 58; 268; 563; 585; 598; 804;

806;807

Winston, 50; 146; 376; 407; 797

Wirth,705

Wittgenstein, 39; 420; 457

Wolpert, 798

Wolstencroft, 412

Woods, 237

Wooldridge, 221; 226; 262; 264 Y

Wos, 54; 104; 52/; 540; 542; 545; 556; 558

Wrightson, 559 Yager, 366

Wu, 264 Young, 58

X Z

Xiang, Л55; 566 Zadeh, 237; 344; 366

Zurada, 445; 456; 459; 481; 796

846

Предметный указатель

А

Abductive inference, 71; 552

Abstract data type, 609

Abstraction, 58

ABSTRIPS, 527

Absurd type, 249

Action potential, 787

Activation record, 189

Admissibility, 784

Agglomerative clustering, 417

a-list, 723

AM, программа, 415

Anonymous variable, 617

Answer extraction, 535

Antecedent, 74

ART, 750

Artificial life, 455

Association list, 723

Associationist theory, 227

ATN, 575

Atom, 656

Atomic sentence, 50

Attractor, 472

network, 437

Attribute, 593

Augmentation of logic grammar, 576

Augmented

phrase structure, 576

transition network, 569; 575; 576

Autoassociative memory, 437; 468

Autoepistemic logic, 330

Automated reasoning, 520; 522

Autonomous system, 263

В

Backpropagation, 436

Backtracking, 121

BACON, программа, 416

Base-level category, 420

Bayesian belief network, 359

Beam search, 180

Belief network, 71; 327

Best first search, 150

Bigram, 589

Binary resolution, 529

Binding problem, 794

Bound variable, 702

Branching factor, 205

Breadth-first search, 124

Bucket brigade algorithm, 495

С

C++, 605; 750

C4.5, алгоритм, 399; 598

Candidate elimination, 381

Candide, программа, 591

Canonical formation rule, 252

Case frame, 233; 581

Case-based reasoning, 415; 784

Category

formation, 373

utility, 421

cdr-рекурсия, 698

Cellular automata, 505

Certainty factor, 164; 342

Chomsky hierarchy, 574

Clashing, 529

Class, 750

precedence, 755

Classifier system, 485; 495

Clause form, 528

CLOS, 750

Closed world assumption, 547; 551; 612

CLUSTER/2, система, 373; 401; 418; 457

Clustering problem, 417

COB-WEB, система, 373; 420

Cognitive science, 524; 792

Competitive learning, 436

Complete proof procedure, 90

Concept, 375

learning, 373

Conceptual

clustering, 373; 417; 418

graph, 245

Condition/action pair, 692

Conditional

evaluation, 694

probability, 356

Confidence measure, 162

Conflict

resolution, 197

set, 197

Conjunction of disjuncts, 530

Conjunctive bias, 402

Connectionist network, 372

Context-free

grammar, 573

language, 574

Context-sensitive language, 574

Counterpropagation network, 456; 459

C-PROLOG, 610

Credit assignment, 390

Crossover, 487; 503

D

Data flow diagram, 594

Data-driven search, 118

Decision tree, 392; 403

Declarative

language, 685

semantics, 609

Deductive closure, 411

Default logic, 330

Definite clause grammar, 680

Delayed evaluation, 736

Delta rule, 436; 446

Demodulation, 556

Demodulator, 556

Demon, 244

DENDRAL, система, 45; 406

Depth-fist search, 124

Detachment, 522

Difference

list, 645

table, 522

Directed acyclic graph, 114

Discrimination net, 432

Dotted pair, 723

DYNA-Q, алгоритм, 425

d-отделение, 361

E

EBL.417

Elman, 788

Embedded particle a, 514

Empiricist's dilemma, 795

Encapsulation, 750

Encoding scheme, 438

Entity-relationship diagram, 594

Evaluation, 79

Evolutionary

learning, 372

programming, 509

EVRISKO, программа, 416

Exhaustive search, 69

Explanation structure, 409

Explanation-based learning, 373; 405; 407; 661

F

Fact, 548; 612

Factor, 536

Family resemblance theory, 420

Feasibility test, 526

Feature vector, 403; 662

Feedback network, 472

Feedforward network, 471

FIFO, структура данных, 624; 714

Filter, 711; 729

First-order predicate calculus, 86

Fitness

function, 484

proportionate selection, 486

Flat Concurrent PROLOG, 560

Flavors, 750

Flexible agent, 263

F-MRI, 793

Form, 687

FORTRAN, 678

Forward chaining, 118

Frame, 241; 639

Free variable, 702

Function

closure, 736

grammar, 598

Functional

language, 685

magnetic resonance imaging, 793

Fuzzy

associative matrix, 346

set, 345

theory, 344

G

General Problem Solver, 44; 198; 220; 522; 526; 784

Generalized delta-rule, 441

Generator, 729

Generic function, 750

Genetic

algorithm, 485

epistemology, 800

learning, 372

Glider, 507

Goal regression, 408

Goal-directed strategy, 135

GOFAI, система, 40

Gradient descent learning, 446

Grammatical

marker, 598

trigram, 591

Gray coding, 492

Ground expression, 85

848

Предметный указатель

H

Hamming distance, 468

HARSAY-R,213

Heteroassociative memory, 437; 468

Heuristics, 69

Hierarchical

abstraction, 604

problem decomposition, 48

Higher-order function, 711

Hill climbing, 153

Horn clause, 403; 547; 612

calculus, 612

Hyperresolution, 536; 555

I

ЮЗ, алгоритм, 373; 387; 392; 394; 398; 401; 453; 591;

598; 761; 797

IDA*, алгоритм, 181

IL, программа, 416

Imperative language, 685

Improper symbol, 78

Incremental parsing, 566

Induction, 372

Inductive bias, 372; 400; 795

Inference rule, 70; 89

Information

extraction system, 596

processing psychology, 524

Informedness, 784

Inheritance, 750

Interpolative memory, 468

Interpretation, 75

J

JASS, 276

Java, 50; 608; 750

Justification based truth maintenance system, 332

К

KEE, 750

Knowledge representation hypothesis, 221

к-коннектор, 134

L

Lambda-calculus, 713

Lambda-PROLOG, 680

Learning algorithm, 438

LEX,388;402;4U

Lexical closure, 712

Lexicon, 567

UFO, структура данных, 622

Limitation on the number of disjuncts, 402

Linear associates, 437; 467

Link grammar, 591

LISP, 50; 276; 396; 416; 501; 606; 607; 685

логическая операция, 694

связывание переменных, 701

символьные вычисления, 694

List, 186; 615; 686

Literal, 529

Logic

program, 547

programming, 542; 547

Logical inference, 89

Logistic function, 445

M

Macro, 738

Macro-expansion, 738

Magnetoencephalography, 793

Majority vote, 512

Map, 711

function, 729

Marker, 247

Markov

assumption, 587

chain, 564

Matching process, 523

Maximally specific generalization, 383

Maximum likelihood density estimation, 417

Means-aids analysis, 220

Means-ends analysis, 522; 784

Mercury, 680

Meta-DENDRAL, 797

Meta-interpreter, 609; 646; 690

Meta-linguistic abstraction, 647; 727

Metamorphosis grammar, 680

Meta-predicate, 609; 639

Modal logic, 253

Model-based reasoning, 784

Modus tollens, 91

Monotonicity, 784

Monte-Carlo, 486

Morphology, 564

Multiple draft theory of consciousness, 797

Mutation, 487; 503

Mutual information clustering, 589

MYCIN, система, 45; 650

N

NASA,37S

Natural deduction system, 557

NETtalk, система, 452

Network topology, 438

Neural network, 372

Neuroscience, 7

Neurotransmitter, 787

Предметный указатель

849

N-ply look-ahead, 171

Nuclear magnetic resonance, 794

Nucleus, 555

Numeric taxonomy, 417

О

Occurs check, 722

Operations research, 784

Operator table, 527

Order crossover, 490

Outstar, 459

P

PAC-

изучаемость, 404

обучение, 404

Paramodulation, 555

Parse tree, 568

Parsing, 565

Pascal, язык, 641; 705

Pattern, 58

Perceptron, 436; 439

Permutation, 503

Phonology, 564

Phrase structure, 568

Physical symbol system, 782

hypothesis, 58

Planning, 527

Polymorphism, 750

Positive literal, 612

Positron emission tomography, 793

Posterior probability, 356

Pragmatics, 564

Predicate, 62; 692

calculus, 62

Predictability, 421

Predictiveness, 421

Prenex normal form, 532

Prior probability, 355

Priority queue, 155; 609; 624

Probability density function, 352

Probably approximately correct learning, 404

Procedural

attachment, 543

semantics, 547

Production, 197

system, 196

PROLOG, 50; 87; 276; 383; 520; 528; 606; 706

абстрактный тип данных, 622

множество, 625

очередь, 624

приоритетная очередь, 624

стек, 622

проверка соответствия типов, 642

реализация

обучения на основе пояснения, 668

семантических сетей, 657

создание

метаинтерпретаторов, 646

семантических сетей, 639

типы данных, 640

Property list, 747

PROSPECTOR, программа, 45

Q

Queue, 609; 624

Q-обучение, 431

R

Raw fitness, 503

Read-eval-print loop, 687

Reasoning over minimum model, 336

Recursively enumerable language, 574

Reduce, 557

Retraction, 211

Refutation, 528

complete, 539

Regular language, 574

Reinforcement learning, 71; 373

Relational database, 593

Replacement, 522

Representation language, 783

Reproduction, 503

Resolution, 77; 90; 92; 95; 606

inference rule, 91

proof procedure, 528

refutation, 533

system, 606

theorem prover, 522

Resolvent, 534

Reward function, 426

Rewrite rule, 567

Roulette wheel, 486

s

Satellite, 555

SCAVENGER, система, 416

Schema, 494

Schemata, 800

SCHEME, 608

Scheme, язык, 803

Science of intelligent systems, 780; 792

Script, 238

Self-organizing network, 458

Semantic

grammar, 598

interpretation, 565

network, 64; 229; 639

preference theory, 599

850

Предметный указатель

Semantics, 564

Sentential form, 567

Set, 625

of support, 522

s-expression, 686

SHRDLU, 565

Sigmoid, 445

Similarity-based learning, 373; 405

Skolem

constant, 532

function, 93

Skolemization, 93; 532

Smalltalk, 750

Speech act theory, 39

Split, 557

SQL, 593

Stack, 609

Standard ML, язык, 803

State space

graph, 32

search, 32; 108

Step-size parameter, 427

Stream, 729

STRIPS, 407; 528

Strong method, 784

Structure mapping theory, 413

Subproblem list, 523

Substitution, 522

Subsumption architecture, 222; 255; 510

Supervised learning, 373; 381; 415

Surface structure, 599

Symbol-based learning, 784

Symbolic expression, 686

Syntax, 564

Systematicity, 413

principle, 414

Systran, программа, 591

s-выражение, 501; 686; 689

nil, 686

T

Table of connections, 526

Tail resursion, 698

Target, 375

Temporal difference learning, 426

rule, 428

Terminal, 142; 567

Theorem proving, 522

Theory of reference, 35

Top-down

derivation, 568

parser, 568

Transformational grammar, 598

Transition network, 569

Tree, 111

Trigram, 588

и

Unconditional probability, 355

Unit

clause, 541

preference, 522

Universal type, 249

Unsupervised learning, 373; 415

V

Value function, 426

Variable quantifier, 81

Verb phrase, 142

Version space, 381

search, 373; 380; 661

Viterbi algorithm, 587

w

Weak method, 520; 784

problem solver, 220

Well-formed formula, 74

William of Occam, 394

A

А*, алгоритм, 493

Абдукгивные рассуждения, 71; 326; 338

Абдуктивный вывод, 327; 552

Абдукция

на основе стоимости, 341

Абстрактный

класс, 751

тип данных, 609; 622; 696

Абстракция, 58

данных, 30

металингвистическая, 647; 727

Абсурдный тип, 249

Автоассоциативная память, 437; 468; 477

Автомат, конечный, 574

Автоматические рассуждения, 519; 522; 559

Автоматическое

доказательство теорем, 43; 369

программирование, 504

Автономная система, 263

Агент, 40; 49; 222

гибкий, 263

интеллектуальный, 371

Агентная

архитектура, 792

модель, 791

Адаптивное планирование, 316

Аксиома границ, 310

Аксон, 5/

Активационная функция, 445

Алгебра ограничений, 337

Предметный указатель 851

Алгоритм

А, 165

А* 165,493

С4.5,399

CLUSTER/2,373

COB-WEB, 373

DYNA-Q, 425

EBL, 407; 412

ГОЗ, 50; 373; 392; 394; 398; 453; 588; 591; 761;

797

IDA*, 181

LEX,411

Meta-DENDRAL, 406

RETE, 291; 301

Витерби, 587

возврата, 331

генетический, 481; 485; 786

двухуровневого минимакса, 174

индукции, 395

исключения кандидата, 381; 385; 391; 661; 666

исходящей звезды, 459

Кохонена, 457

Маркова, 198

обобщения на основе объяснения, 407

обратного распространения, 448

обучения,438

на основе подобия, 373

на основе пояснения, 668

персептрона, 441

с учителем Гроссберга, 456

Хебба без учителя, 463

Хебба с учителем, 466

отбора пропорционально критерию

качества, 486

победитель забирает все, 455

пожарной цепочки, 495

поиска

в пространстве версий, 373

в ширину, 714

допустимый, 165

жадный, 717

построения дерева решений (ГОЗ), 392

унификации, 103; 724

устранения противоречий, 555

хронологических возвратов, 331

Альфа-бета-усечение, 175

Анализ

естественного языка, 592.

лингвистический, 585

синтаксический, 564

целей и средств, 220; 522; 526; 784

Анализатор

на основе сети переходов, 573

сверху вниз, 568

Аналогия, 375; 412

Анонимная переменная, 617

Антецедент, 74

Апостериорная вероятность, 556"

Априорная вероятность, 355

Арность, 79

Архитектура

Copycat, 255; 259

гибридная, 506

категориальная, 222; 255

категоризации, 510

классной доски, 213

а-список, 723

Ассоциативный список, 723; 724

Атом, 609; 686; 689

Атомарное высказывание, 80

Атрибут, 593

Аттрактор, 436; 437; 472; 513

Аттракторная сеть, 437

Аттракторный радиус, 471; 472

Ациклический

направленный граф, 360

ориентированный граф, 114

Б

База знаний, 275

Базовая категория, 420

Байесовская сеть доверия, 327; 359

Байесовский

анализ, 355

подход, 520

Безусловная вероятность, 355

Биграмма, 589

Бинарная резолюция, 529; 555

Бритва Оккама, 394

В

В

Вектор

весовых коэффициентов, 436

признаков, 403; 662

Вероятностная

семантика, 341

функция чувствительности, 352

Вершины-братья, ///

Весовой коэффициент, 438

Включение процедур- 545

Внедренная частица а, 514

Возврат с учетом зависимостей, 331

Воспроизводство, 503

Временная

логика, 365

разность, 426

Встроенный тип данных, 705

Входной сигнал, 437

Выбор свойств на основе теории информации, 396

Выражение

k-CNF, 405

единичное, 541

852

Предметный указатель

замкнутое, 85

катетеризированное, 543

КНФ, 488

конъюнктивное, 728

символьное, 686

функциональное, 79

хорновское, 547; 727

Высказывание, атомарное, 80

Вычислимость по Тьюрингу, 58

Вычислительная эффективность, 268

Г

Генератор, 729

Генерация языковых конструкций, 584

Генетическая эпистемология, 800

Генетический

алгоритм, 52; 481; 484; 485; 786

оператор, 487

инвертирования, 488

мутации, 487

обмена, 488

упорядоченного скрещивания, 490

Генетическое

обучение, 372

программирование, 484; 501

Гетероассоциативная память, 437; 468

Гибкая сеть, 260

Гибкий агент, 263

Гибридная система, 303; 306

Гиперграф, 134

Гипердуга, 134

Гиперплоскость, 441

Гиперрезолюция, 536; 555

Гипотеза, 383

Андерсона, 805

о представлении знаний, 221

о физической символьной системе, 52; 58; 778;

782

Черча-Тьюринга, 789; 805

Глагольная конструкция, 142; 568

Головоломка

15,114

8,200

Грамматика, 574

контекстно-независимая, 573

метаморфоз, 680

определенных дизъюнктов, 680

падежная, 598

преобразований, 585; 598

связей, 591

семантическая, 598

фразовая структура, 568

функциональная, 598

Грамматическая триграмма, 591

Грамматический маркер, 598

Грамматическое правило, 570

Граф, 64

ациклический

направленный, 360

ориентированный, 114

И/ИЛИ, 133; 285

и-вершина, 142

и-узел, 133

концептуальный, 222; 245; 581; 594

ориентированный, ПО

отношения между вершинами, 111

поведения задачи, 198

поиска, 283

пространства состояний, 66; 108

размеченный, ПО

состояний, 32

Д

д

Двоичная арифметика, 34

Двунаправленная ассоциативная память (ДАЛ), 472

Двунаправленный поиск, 385

Дедуктивное замыкание, 411

Дедукция, 522

Декларативная семантика, 609

Декларативное программирование, 522

Декларативность, 685

Дельта-правило, 436; 446; 449

обобщенное, 441

Демодулятор, 556

Демодуляция, 556

Демон, 244

Дендрит, 57

Дерево, 111

грамматического разбора, 568; 573; 580

разбора, 565

решений, 392; 403

построение сверху вниз, 394

Диагностика, 274

Диаграмма

потоков данных, 594

сущность-связь, 594

Дизъюнкт, 74

Дизъюнктивная форма, 528

хорновская, 672

Дизъюнкция, 74

Дилемма эмпирика, 795; 798

Динамическое программирование, 429; 587

Дискриминантам

сеть, 432

функция, 442

Добавление повторяющихся элементов, 400

Доказательство

на основе опровержения, 672

теорем, 520; 522; 528

Допустимая эвристика, 164

Допустимость, 784

Допустимый

Предметный указатель

853

алгоритм поиска, 165

путь, 113

Доступ к компонентам списка, 696

Е

Е

Единичное

выражение, 541

предпочтение, 522

Естественная дедуктивная система, 557

Естественный язык, 519; 561

Ж

Ж

Жадный алгоритм поиска, 153; 160; 634

3

Задача

анализа естественного языка, 592

генерации языковых конструкций, 584

диагностики автомобиля, 287

из мира блоков, 637

индуктивных порогов, 403

индукции, 372; 401

интересной жизни, 537; 540

исключающего ИЛИ, 440; 454

классификации, 442

битовых строк, 400

эндшпилей, 398

кластеризации, 417; 459

коммивояжера, 113; 116; 437; 489

о кенигсбергских мостах, 32; 108

о кувшинах с водой, 681

о миссионерах и каннибалах, 336; 681

обработки естественного языка, 677

обучения классификации, 441

определения частей речи, 585

оценки кредитного риска, 392

перевозки человека, волка, козы и капусты, 626;

706

планирования, 308; 311

размещения костей домино, 783

смертной собаки, 530

счастливого студента, 536

управления перевернутым маятником, 345

финансового советника, 100; 139; 163

ханойских башен, 526

хода конем, 202; 618

Закон

де Моргана, 220; 548

исключения третьего, 344

Замена, 522

Замкнутость предметной области, 337

Замыкание функции, 736

Запись активации,189

Запрос SQL, 595

И

и-вершина, 138

Игра

"Жизнь", 505; 506

"крестики-нолики", 113; 150; 427

"ним", 170

"пятнашки", 114

Иерархическая

абстракция, 604

декомпозиция задачи, 48

Иерархия

обобщения понятий, 391

Хомского, 574; 599

Извлечение

знаний, 279

ответа, 535

Изучаемость, 404

Изучение понятий, 373

Именная конструкция, 142; 568

Императивность, 685

Импликация, 74; 523; 728

Индуктивное обучение, 373

Индуктивный порог, 370; 372; 373; 391; 400; 436;

457; 795; 797

Индукция, 372; 373; 395

Инкапсуляция, 750

Инкрементальный

алгоритм обучения, 387

синтаксический разбор, 566

Интеллектуальный агент, 371; 373

Интерполятивная память, 468

Интерпретатор, 726

метауровня, 727

семантический, 580

Интерпретация, 75; 84; 274

Интерфейс взаимодействия с базой данных, 592

Инфиксный интерпретатор, 690; 726

Искусственная жизнь, 485; 508

Искусственный

интеллект, 27; 42; 781

распределенный, 262

нейрон, 372; 437

Исследование операций, 784

Исходящая звезда, 459

Исчерпывающий поиск, 69

Исчисление

высказываний, 73; 522

символы,74

предикатов, 62; 73; 77; 103; 727

алфавит, 78

первого порядка, 34; 86

символы, 80

пропозициональное, 296

Итерационное заглубление, 131

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